The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of millions of devices around the world that connect to the Internet and measure, monitor, and provide rich data.Today’s IoT consists of many loosely connected networks, each solving its own problems.For example, in an office building, multiple LoRaWAN-based IoT solutions can be deployed at the same time: one for controlling air conditioning and another for heating systems, lighting, security, and other IoT applications.
These IoT networks can operate according to different standards, and combining them into one network is not an easy task.Low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technology can support a large number of IoT use cases.While there are multiple LPWAN technologies, the long-range (LoRa technology) and its network architecture, LoRaWAN, is currently the most adopted.LoRa provides a range of physical layer communication settings such as bandwidth, spreading factor, encoding rate and transmission frequency.These settings affect throughput, reliability, and communication range.
The LoRaWAN protocol is based on the LoRa radio modulation method and is a low-power wide area network protocol.It manages the communication between end node IoT devices and network gateways and connects the devices to the internet via wireless connections.LoRaWAN is a point-to-multipoint network protocol.It’s not just about the radio waves; it’s about how they interact with the LoRaWAN gateway to provide features like encryption and identification.
At the most basic level, radio technology like LoRaWAN is simple.The best analogy for a LoRaWAN network is a cellular network.LoRa-based devices have a module that connects to a gateway, which is a local central location.Consider how your cell phone sends and receives data through cell towers.The gateway acts as a conduit between the device and the server.The web server uses the internet to communicate with the gateway and instruct it to interact with IoT devices.In other words, the web server is responsible for removing duplicate packets, confirming the integrity of the data, and performing security checks.Also, nodes in a star architecture do not need to constantly listen for messages from other nodes.As a result, they may be “sleeping” most of the time, reducing their energy usage.
Class A is a simple ALOHA system because it is completely asynchronous; this means that end nodes do not have to wait a specific time to communicate with the gateway.Instead, they broadcast when needed and then stop being active the next time they are needed.If you have an eight-channel system, you can populate each time slot with a message so it’s perfectly in sync.
Messages can be transmitted down to battery powered nodes using class B.Every 128 seconds, the gateway sends a beacon.Because all LoRaWAN base stations are slaves to a single pulse-per-second clock, they all send out beacon messages (1PPS) simultaneously; this means at the beginning of every second.Each GPS satellite in orbit transmits a message that synchronizes time around the world.
Class C allows nodes to continuously listen and send downstream messages at any time.This is often used in AC powered applications because it requires a lot of energy to keep the node fully awake and operating the receiver at all times.
LoRaWAN networks are compatible with a wide range of IoT applications and have been successfully used in the following use cases:
Smart cities require real-time visibility into every aspect of urban life.To achieve this, smart cities typically utilize wide-area wireless networks to enable connectivity between vast networks of disparate data-generating IoT devices, sensors, and smart meters.LoRaWAN wireless technology is the best IoT solution for smart city-wide applications.Using IoT technology and various smart devices to visualize and analyze comprehensive real-time data, cities can respond dynamically by optimizing asset utilization and city resource allocation.Cities can integrate IoT into their infrastructure to automate tasks, monitor and manage equipment, and perform predictive maintenance to reduce operating costs.Cities around the world can optimize utility and employee usage by integrating city services such as:
Thanks to LoRaWAN-based IoT solutions, supply chain and logistics companies are successfully tracking high-value assets, including those in transit.Thanks to the technology’s superior range, low power consumption and GPS-free positioning, vehicles, cargo and other supports can be easily tracked over wide geographic areas and harsh environments.Fleet monitoring IoT solutions using LoRaWAN connectivity can save money by keeping fleets on the road longer, improve fuel economy, improve safety, provide visibility into maintenance issues, and improve overall operational efficiency.
With minimal infrastructure and maintenance expenditures, homeowners and property/facility managers can increase efficiency and minimize expenditures by deploying LoRa-based smart IoT building solutions:
Low power consumption, low cost, and consistent performance make LoRaWAN networks ideal for basic smart healthcare applications.LoRaWAN-based IoT solutions can continuously monitor high-risk patients or systems, ensuring health and medical safety are never compromised.
LoRaWAN-based IoT solutions can be designed to continuously and reliably monitor the most important vital signs of hospital patients, geriatric caregivers, high-performance athletes, or anyone else who needs real-time, always-on awareness of their respiratory health.IoT LoRaWAN Smart Health Solutions can help:
The demand for comprehensive safety and security solutions is increasing.IoT network-based public safety solutions provide first responders with cutting-edge technology that can reduce hazards and improve personal safety.Personal wearable IoT gadgets such as ID badges are equipped with LoRaWAN technology, including a panic button that sends instant SOS with user location information.
Corporate employees are becoming more mobile and are rapidly adopting the “anytime, anywhere” work philosophy.Due to the unpredictable flow of staff and guests, office space can be idle or overbooked for extended periods of time.Properly using and arranging available space has become a logistical challenge for companies.
By deploying a network of devices and gateways equipped with a LoRaWAN network within an area, environmental metrics can be recorded and published in real-time for data analysis.They find problems before they become disasters.LoRaWAN-based environmental IoT solutions help protect people from environmental threats, from air quality monitoring to radiation leak detection.
The concept of using LoRaWAN based IoT solutions for smart farming practices is gaining popularity as farmers can now easily visualize, analyze their crops, livestock, equipment, infrastructure, environment and all other components they need to monitor continuously And make smarter decisions and manage to increase yield and increase efficiency.IoT agricultural sensors are compact in size and can determine many parameters to understand environmental aspects.IoT sensors can be deployed to collect data on sunlight exposure that can be used to make better crop planting decisions and help determine whether solar integration is a viable option for farms.
Instead of having each end device on almost always, end devices in a LoRaWAN network interact directly with the gateway and only “on” when it needs to communicate with the gateway, because the content is not the issue.LoRa radios have some properties that allow them to get enough long-range power and low cost.Some of these features include:
LoRa radios use spectral modulation techniques to significantly increase communication range while maintaining low power characteristics comparable to FSK modulated physical layer radios.Although widely used in military and space communications for quite some time, LoRa is the first low-cost commercial implementation of the method.
While LoRa technology is frequency agnostic, LoRa radios communicate over unlicensed sub-GHz radio frequency bands that are widely available around the world.These frequencies vary by region and, in many cases, by country.
LoRa uses a combination of variable bandwidth and spreading factor (SF7-SF12) to vary the data rate, which is a trade-off with transmission range.Higher spreading factors provide greater coverage at lower data rates and vice versa.The combination of bandwidth and spreading factor is set based on network conditions and the amount of data being sent.
LoRa radios have adaptable power levels.Factors such as data rate and network quality can affect LoRa radios and more.When fast transmission is required, the transmission power is increased and vice versa.As a result, battery life is extended and network capacity is preserved.Various factors, including device class, can affect power consumption.
In the future, our global, national and regional networks must support billions or even trillions of smart IoT devices worldwide.LoRaWAN based IoT solutions and LoRaWAN technology will play a very important role in providing innovative, low cost and efficient networks for future applications.There is a Lora Alliance consortium that unites more than 400 companies worldwide to contribute, improve and implement smart LoRaWAN networks for future needs.
The LoRa Alliance is an open, not-for-profit membership association that believes the age of the Internet of Things has arrived.Launched by industry leaders, the LoRa Alliance’s mission is to standardize low-power wide-area networks (LPWANs) deployed around the world to enable the Internet of Things (IoT), machine-to-machine (M2M) and smart city and industrial applications.
Post time: Jan-14-2022